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جمعه 11 فروردین 1396

Public Debt Management

نویسنده: Thomas Skaran   





Public Debt Management

by Bilal Pandow

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These are issued by the National Bank of Rwanda (NBR) on behalf of the National Treasuryand can be issued to individuals, banks and other institutionsRegulations and procedures for the primary distribution of government securities, including the auction format and rules for participation, bidding, and allocation should be clear to all participantsThe ALM approach also provides a useful framework for considering governance arrangements for managing the government's balance sheet3See, for example, Remarks by Chairman Alan Greenspan before the World Bank Group and the International Monetary Fund, Program of Seminars, Washington, D.C., September27, 1999Where appropriate, issuing instruments with embedded options (such as savings bonds, which are redeemable by the bondholder on demand) may also contribute to instrument diversificationClarity in the roles and objectives for debt management and monetary policy minimizes potential conflictsMoreover, debt managers should consider the interactions between the government's financial situation and those of the financial and non-financial sectors in times of stress in order to ensure that the government's debt management activities do not exacerbate risks in the private sectorInadequate coordination or procedures with regard to borrowings by lower levels of government, which may be guaranteed by the central government, or by state-owned enterprisesIt may also constrain the central bank from raising interest rates to address inflation or support the exchange rate because of concerns about the short-term impact on the government's financial positionThe back office handles the settlement of transactions and the maintenance of the financial records2.4Accountability and assurances of integrity by agencies responsible for debt management 27

Debt management should encompass the main financial obligations over which the central government exercises controlThere are also important differences between the role of the government and that of private companiesDeveloped countries, which typically have deep and liquid markets for their government's securities, often focus primarily on market risk, and, together with stress tests, may use sophisticated portfolio models for measuring this risk2933This separation helps to promote the independence of those setting and monitoring the risk management framework and assessing performance from those responsible for executing market transactionsSound cash management by its nature combines elements of debt management and monetary operationsGovernments and central banks should promote the development of resilient secondary markets that can function effectively under a wide range of market conditionsOffering a range of debt management instruments with standardized features in the domestic market helps make financial markets more complete, which enables all participants to better hedge their financial commitments and exposures, thus contributing to reduced risks premia and vulnerability in the economy more generallyThis has left government budgets seriously exposed to changing financial market conditions, including changes in the country's creditworthiness, when this debt has to be rolled over2.Transparency and Accountability7 18This helps ensure that debt management decisions are not perceived to be influenced by inside information on interest rate decisions, and avoids perceptions of conflicts of interest in market operationsBox 4Sound debt management policies reduce susceptibility to contagion and financial risk by playing a catalytic role for broader financial market development and financial deepeningFor domestic currency borrowings, this typically involves auctions of government securities, although syndications have been successfully used by borrowers that do not have a need to raise funds on a regular basis, or are introducing a new instrument to the market.35 Governments should rarely cancel auctions because of market conditions, or cut off the amounts awarded below the preannounced tender amount in order to achieve short-run debt service cost objectivesDebt managers should carefully assess and manage the risks associated with foreign-currency and short-term or floating rate debtThis practice is used to encourage the placement of government debtHowever, other countries have not adopted this practice because of considerations relating to exchange rate objectives and the institutional framework, including intervention and issues related to the role and independence of the central bank 5d8a9798ff
Bilal Pandow

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